THE CONCEPT OF ISLAMIC EDUCATION CURRICULUM ACCORDING TO IBNU KHALDUN
“Marjiatul Maghfiroh” maghfirohwalquran@assegaf
The curriculum is a program idea that is planned to be implemented and evaluated to achieve the desired educational goals. The purpose of education will be used as a reference in implementing learning. In compiling a curriculum, it is necessary to have a concept as a tool to implement the planned curriculum. In this article, the author explains about the curriculum concept of one of the Islamic leaders, Ibn Khaldun. Ibn Khladun is one of the reformers in Islamic education. His ideas about education are contained in his book, al-Muqaddimah. The concept of education in Ibn Khaldun’s thinking includes human resources, the formulation of educational goals, aspects of whole human education and education about morality. It is expected that in the learning process there is a good interaction between teachers and students to achieve the desired educational goals.
Keywords: Islamic Education, Curriculum, Ibnu Khaldun
Ibn Khaldun’s full name was Abd al-Rahman bin Muhammad bin Mohammad bin Hasan bin Jabar bin Mohammad bin Ibrahim bin Abd al-Rahman bin Khaldun. He was born in Tunisia, North Africa, in 732 H or 1332 M, to an immigrant family from Andalusia, Southern Spain, who moved to Tunisia in the middle of the VII H century. Origin of the family of Ibn Khaldun who is actually from Hadramaut, southern Yemen. His name Ibn Khaldun was taken from the name of his ninth grandfather, Khalid bin Uthman. And in the end, Ibn Khaldun, died in Cairo, Egypt. On 25 Ramadan 808 H or 19 March, 1406 M. Ibn Khaldun died at the age of 74 years in Egypt. His body was buried in the cemetery Sufis outside Bab al-Nashir, Cairo.
As a Muslim philosopher, the thoughts of Ibn Khaldun were very rational and stick to a lot of logic. Additionally, as a scientist, Ibn Khaldun succeeded in making synthetic thinking between the flow of Rationalism with the flow of Empiricism, between deduction and induction. Furthermore, he is a thinker who firmly holds Islamic teachings. The scientific works that published by Ibn Khaldun among others: Kitab Al-Ibar wa Diwan al-Mubtada wa al-Khabar fi Ayyam al-Arab wa al-Ajam wa al-Barbar wa Man Asharahum min Dzawi al-Sulthan al-Akbar, Kitab Muqaddimah Ibn Khaldun, dan Kitab Al-Ta’rif bi Ibn Khaldun wa Rihlatuh Garban wa Syarqan.
The curriculum at the time of Ibn Khaldun was different from the understanding of the curriculum today. At the time of Ibn Khaldun, the curriculum was still narrow in meaning, namely, it was still limited to information and knowledge presented by teachers or madrasas in the form of limited subjects in the forms of certain traditional madrasa books and various old heritage books studied by students in each stage of education. Moreover, the basis of children’s education according to Ibn Khaldun cannot be separated from the basis of Islamic education. Islamic education is based on the legal rules in the al-Qur’an and al-Hadith.
Ibn Khaldun’s concept of an educational curriculum can be seen from the concept of epistemology. According to him, knowledge science in Muslim culture can be divided into two parts, namely: “Syar’iyyah science and Philosophical science”. Additionally, he shared knowledge into three kinds: “the verbal science Second, the naql science group, and the aqli science”.
Nevertheless, the goals of Islamic education according to Ibn Khaldun from three points of view, namely: a. From the aspect of his personality, Islamic education aims to develop physical and spiritual potential (reason, nafs, and spirit) optimally so that the existence of humanity becomes perfect, b. From the aspect of nature, as social beings, Islamic education aims to educate humans to be able to live in society well so that with their knowledge and abilities, they are able to build an advanced civilized society. (c) From the aspect of his function and role, as a servant of Allah and His Khalifa on the earth, Islamic education aims to educate people to be able to carry out activities that have the value of worship as well as to be able to carry out their duties as Khalifa on earth in maintaining this universe.
Moreover, in order to achieve educational goals, the method plays an important role. So, the teaching methods offered by Ibn Khaldun include six methods, namely: the method of habituation, tadrij method (gradually), general recognition method (generalistic), continuity method, pay attention talents and abilities of students, and avoid violence in teaching. In addition, Ibn Khaldun’s concept of teaching subject matter have 3 stages to pass, which are: the initial stage (the knowledge given is simply not unraveled), the teacher repeats the lessons from the first chapter (the lessons are further improved and the descriptions are expanded and detailed), and then the teacher repeats the subject matter from beginning to end.